Paros and its Colonies
Paros IV is the fourth in a series of international conferences dedicated to the archaeology and culture of Paros and the Cyclades, organized by IAPC. This volume, entitled Paros and its Colonies, contains scholarly papers presented during the Fourth International Congress of Archaeology on Paros and the Cyclades, which was organized in collaboration with the Municipality of Paros and the Archilochos of Paros Cultural Association, and took place in Paroikia from 11-14 June, 2015. The congress, the first ever held on the topic of colonial enterprises of the ancient Parians, attracted the interest of many scholars from Greece and abroad who presented papers on the metropolis, the island of Paros, and all three main colonies that Paros founded in the ancient world: Parion in the Propontis, Thasos in the North Aegean, and Pharos in the Adriatic (island of Hvar, Croatia). This congress followed three previous ones held in Paroikia, devoted to a number of important issues of the cultural heritage of Paros: (1) PARIA LITHOS (1997), (2) Archilochos of Paros and his age (2005) and (3) Skopas of Paros and his world (2010). The proceedings of these congresses were also published by the IAPC. The first, entitled Paria Lithos. Parian Quarries, Marble, and Workshops of Sculpture, edited by Demetrius Schilardi and Dora Katsonopoulou, was published in 2000 and reprinted in 2010; the second, entitled Archilochos and his Age (Paros II), edited by Dora Katsonopoulou, John Petropoulos and Stella Katsarou, was published in 2008; and the third, entitled Skopas of Paros and his World, edited by Dora Katsonopoulou and Andrew Stewart, was published in 2013.
The present volume on the fourth Congress (Paros IV), also published by IAPC, and edited by Dora Katsonopoulou, includes a total of twenty-six scholarly papers, divided into two parts. Part I, entitled Paros, the Metropolis, includes eight studies on the Parian enterprises outside the island and the results of archaeological work on Paros in the last three decades showing that Paros was an organized city already in the 8th century BC. Part II, entitled Paros’ Colonies: Parion – Thasos – Pharos, contains eighteen papers on the history and archaeology of the colonies beginning with the earlier colony of Parion founded in the last years of the 8th century BC, then Thasos in the 7th and, finally, Pharos in the first half of the 4th century BC.
Part I begins with a review of the archaeological, epigraphical, and literary evidence to address the issue of Parian ventures abroad in the Archaic period and their type of civic activities or private actions of individuals (Tandy). In the next article, new evidence is presented from recent excavations and ceramic studies of major sites in Southern Italy (Siris and, above all, Incoronata) providing an exceptional record for the presence of a major Greek community of potters from the Aegean Sea, and more particularly from the Cyclades (Denti). Then, the finds from the excavations of the last 30 years on Paros, including the discovery of the official cemetery of the city, are considered to show that Paros was an organized state of considerable power already in the second half of the 8th century BC (Ζαφειροπούλου). The topography of the ancient city of Paros, one of the richest and best organized cities in the Cyclades, is presented on the basis of earlier and more recent excavation finds (Κουράγιος). Next, certain recently known sculptures in Parian marble are discussed including the Roman statue of a Muse in Padova, a headless female statue in the Sorgente Group in Rome and architectural sculptures from Keryneia of Achaea in the northwestern Peloponnese (Katsonopoulou). Following this, a hoard buried in the late 3rd century BC and other coins found at the site of ancient sculptor’s workshop in Paroikia are described (Δετοράτου) and the adjacent pottery workshops are discussed regarding their function, production and location in relation to the poleodomic plan of the ancient city (Παπαδημητρίου). Finally, issues regarding the cults of Apollo and Herakles on Paros, in connection to the respective cults in the colony of Thasos are considered (Παπαδοπούλου).
To introduce Part II, which is devoted to Paros’ colonies, excavation work conducted in the last decade at the site of Parion is first presented. One of the most famous works in the city, the colossal altar of the 4th century BC, the identity of its architect Hermokreon and relevant numismatic evidence are discussed (Keleş) and the Roman pottery discovered in the ancient necropolis, dated between the 7th century BC and the late Roman times, is presented (Ergürer). Then, the history of the Roman baths from the time of their construction in the 2nd century AD until their abandonment in the 7th century is demonstrated (Alper Yilmaz) and the water supply of the Roman city of Parion is shortly presented as part of the author’s doctoral dissertation (Michael Deniz Yilmaz). Last, metallurgy activities and production in Parion are described via chemical analysis and studies of the metal objects found in the excavations (Çelikbas).
The following papers refer to Thasos, beginning first with the presentation of a study of the repertory of G 2-3 table ware discovered in the pre-colonial settlement of Thasos before the arrival of the Parians (Ilieva), and secondly, with an overview of the question of mining and metal production in the early Archaic period before and after the Parian colonization (Sanidas et al.). Next, the possible Parian influences on Thasian pottery are demonstrated via presentation of the results of physico-chemical analysis of a group of one-handled mugs found at the Artemision (Perron), and an evaluation of the dissemination and use of imported decorated pottery to the Thasian colonies during the Archaic period is presented (Μανακίδου). The religious transfers between the metropolis and its colony as well as their evolution are considered next (Trippé), while the cult of Artemis is the subject of the following two papers regarding the topography of her sanctuaries in the ancient city of Thasos (Muller) and certain aspects of her identity via the study of symbolic offerings from the Artemision (Prêtre). The dedication on Thasos concludes with the presentation of the early sculpture and its possible links with the Parian colonists (Holtzmann).
The last five papers of the volume are dedicated to Pharos, Paros’ colony in the Adriatic. First, literary evidence on Pharos’ foundation, in the context of contemporary politics and trade in the Dalmatian area is examined (Coppola) and the results of excavations conducted between 2009 and 2013 by the Stari Grad Museum at Remete Garden are presented concluding that the fortification walls excavated are dated to the Hellenistic period (Popović και Devlahović). Next, the great number of Greek amphorae (4th-2nd centuries BC) from the excavations on Pharos is discussed in light of its agricultural economy and a brief review of wine production in the medieval period and in antiquity is provided (Kirigin). In the following paper, the presence of Greek personal names on Pharos (4th-1st centuries BC) is investigated on the basis of inscriptions on stone, lead tablets, pottery fragments, and literary sources (Marohnić). Lastly, Paros’ perception as a remote metropolis in written Croatian sources from the 16th century until recently and the contribution of recent archaeological evidence in shaping a living connection between Paros and Pharos are discussed (Čavić).