Paros through the Ages
From Prehistoric Times to the 16th Century AD
Paros V is the fifth volume in a series of Proceedings of International Conferences dedicated to the history and archaeology of Paros and the Cyclades, organized by the Institute for the Archaeology of Paros and the Cyclades (IAPC) and conducted at Paroikia on Paros at periodic intervals. The volume entitled Paros through the Ages – From Prehistoric Times to the 16th Century AD, contains scholarly papers presented during the Fifth International Congress of Archaeology on Paros and the Cyclades, and held in Paroikia of Paros from 21-24 June 2019, in collaboration with the Municipality of Paros and the Cultural Association ‘Archilochos of Paros’.
The volume is edited by Dora Katsonopoulou and includes a total of thirty eight scholarly papers, divided into four parts. Part I entitled Paria Lithos and Parian Sculptors, includes 13 studies on the use and diffusion of Paria Lithos and on works of Parian sculptors. Part II entitled Paros and the Ancient World contains 14 articles on the mythology, history and archaeology of Paros, as well as the island’s placement in the ancient world. Part III entitled Byzantine and Post-Byzantine Paros, contains 5 articles on the history and archaeology of Paros during these periods and Part IV entitled Natural and Marine Environment, includes 6 papers on the ancient environment and the coasts of Paros and the Cyclades.
Part I begins with an overview about the use of Parian marble in Paros and its diffusion outside the island as well as the contribution of Parian sculptors in the development and evolution of sculpture, especially during the Late Archaic and Classical periods (Κουράγιος). The new style of pathos in Greek sculpture, utterly expressed by Skopas of Paros, and the role played by the sculpture workshops of Paros of the 6th and 5th centuries BC, is discussed in the following article via the examination of innovative sculptures from Paros (Katsonopoulou). Another aspect of Skopas’ artistic creation, with reference to tradition and archaism, is presented in the next work in connection with the different themes undertaken by the sculptor (Calcani). Based on the results of a recent study of Classical sculptures in the Athenian Agora, the following paper examines the contributions of the Parian sculptors Agorakritos and Lokros to the turn from the style of Pheidias to the “rich” style of the last decades of the 5th century BC (Stewart). A significant new grave relief of the late 5th century BC from the ancient cemetery of Paros, depicting a man and a woman with an infant, is analyzed and published for the first time by the excavator (Ζαφειροπούλου). The following article refers to the catalytic contribution of the elegiac poet Evenos of Paros in the establishment of the ekphrastic epigram describing works of art (Corso). The next 4 studies relate to sculpture works of Parian marble and the activity of Parian sculptors in Italy, starting with the presentation of Parian marble sculptures of the 5th and 4th centuries BC transferred to the city of Rome (Cirucci), continuing with the investigation of the use of Parian marble and the contribution of Parian sculptors in the architecture and sculpture of Western Sicily during the Early Classical period (Marconi), the influence of Parian workshops on the architecture and sculpture of Akragas during the Late Archaic and Early Classical periods (Adornato) and the analysis of the Parian marble statue known as the “Kouros” of Reggio in Calabria, probably representing Apollo (Castrizio). The following work examines the use of Parian and Naxian marble in antiquity in architecture, and especially on roofs (Ohnesorg). Part I concludes with two articles on Parian marble and its export to cities and sanctuaries of the Greek world for the construction of sculptures during the 6th century BC (Loy), and its use for the creation of high quality sculptures and monumental buildings throughout the ancient Greek world during the Archaic and Early Classical periods (Phillips).
Part II begins with the investigation of the origins and cultural background of the myth of Herakles in Paros (Coppola) and a new interpretation of an enigmatic representation of Chimaira on an archaic amphora from the excavation of the ancient cemetery of Paros (Petropoulos). The publication of new data from the excavation of three built chambered tombs in Koukounaries of Paros follows (Spanos). The next work explores the long-standing relationship between the Athenians and the Parians from the 10th to the 3rd centuries BC through the historical, epigraphic and archaeological evidence (Tandy), while the chronological limits and the iconography of the coinage of Paros between the 6th century BC and the Hellenistic times are discussed in the following article (Castrizio). The jewels depicted on pottery of an important Archaic Parian workshop and their role and interpretation in daily life of people are presented and discussed in the next study (Τσαμπίρη). The following two works concern the ancient cemetery of Paros at Vitzi of Paroikia. Its burial customs are examined on the basis of the study of its tombstones (Γριμανέλης) and more burials and burial monuments found at the location of Agios Panteleimon are interpreted as a probable extension of the cemetery to the North (Alexandridou and Daifa). The next three works are devoted to the cults of Paros and the importance of votive offerings in the sanctuaries. First, the results of the study of dedications to the sanctuary of Apollo in Despotiko are presented in comparison with the Delion of Paros (Kourayos and Angliker), then the dedications to the sanctuaries of Asklepios and Eilytheia on Paros are discussed (Piette) and finally the costume offerings in the sanctuary of Delos as a dedication practice are analysed based on the epigraphic archives of Delos (Tsourinaki). Part II concludes with three articles on the earliest colony of Paros, Parion in the Propontis, focusing on the presentation of statues by famous Greek sculptors in the classical city of Parion according to literary evidence (Keles and Michael Deniz Yilmaz), the description and interpretation of a recent sculptural find from the Antonine period, an arch with a relief of the goddess Hygeia from the Roman baths of the city (Alper Yilmaz and Tugrul), and finally the discovery of a possible murex workshop in the city of Roman Parion (Celikbas).
Part III begins with a review of the historical evidence for Paros and the investigation of the role that the island may have played during the Early Medieval times (Roussos), as well as the investigation of the administration in the Aegean during the Middle Byzantine period and Paros’ role (Μαλατράς). The next article examines the use of the lychnites marble during the Medieval period based on written sources and new examples of the use of Parian marble outside the borders of the Byzantine Empire (Πάλλης). An unpublished Byzantine seal of the end of the 11th-beginning of the 12th century from the collection of the State Hermitage Museum of St. Petersburg is the subject of the following work (Stavrakos). Part III concludes with the presentation of a 17th century manuscript in the Public Historical Library of Chios ‘Korais’ and its reference to the Cyclades and the island of Paros (Μερούσης and Μουσταντάμη).
The last Part IV begins with an overview of the ancient environment of Paros and the Cyclades in prehistoric times based on the data of archaeological research and studies to date (Καραλή). The sea trade routes through the Cyclades between 800-600 BC and in relation to the islands of Paros and Naxos is the subject of the following work (Forsyth). The next four articles concern the coasts of Paros, beginning with the definition of six sea levels and the relative changes in sea level over the last 6300 years (Μουρτζάς and Κολαΐτη) and the dating of these levels based on archaeological indicators from the end of the Neolithic period until recent years (Κολαΐτη and Μουρτζάς). In the next article the results of the coastal research in Paros by the Geoswim program aiming at the collection of physical, chemical and ecological data, are presented (Furlani et al.), and finally the effects of sea level rise and the resulting impact of marine flooding in the Gulf of Paroikia for the next decades are discussed (Kolaiti et al.).